1. Pfleeger and Hatton (1997) examined the quality of a system that had been specified using formal methods. They found that the system was unusually well-structured and easy to test. They speculated that the high quality was due to the thoroughness of the specification, not necessarily its formality. How could you design a study to determine whether it is formality or thoroughness that leads to high quality? 2. For each of the systems described below, sketch an appropriate software architecture and explain how you would assign key functionalities to the designs components. a. A system of automated banking machines, acting as distributed kiosks that bank customers can use to deposit and withdraw cash from their accounts b. A news feeder that notifies each user of news bulletins on topics in which the user has expressed an interest c. Imagin-processing software that allows users to apply various operations to modify their pictures (e.g., rotation, color tinting, cropping) d. A weather forecasting application that analyzes tens of thousands of data elements collected from various sensors; the sensors periodically transmit new data values.