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QUESTION 11 1. As a practical matter, how many votes does it take in the Senate to confirm a Supreme Court justice? a. 51 votes b. 60 votes c. 67 votes d. 50 votes QUESTION 12 1. How many votes in Congress are required to override a presidential veto? a. a three-fifths vote in each chamber b. a two-thirds vote in each chamber c. a two-thirds vote in at least one chamber and a simple majority in the other d. a simple majority vote in each chamber QUESTION 13 1. One reason that Congress seems to accomplish so little is that a. To reduce the possibility of tyranny, the framers designed a system that made it difficult to pass legislation without broad consensus. b. Too many of its members are trying to run for president at any given time. c. Congress has become increasingly sensitive to whether the Supreme Court will hold things it passes to be unconstitutional d. The American people don’t want Congress to do much QUESTION 14 1. According to Sarah Binder, the biggest reason that Congress seems to accomplish so little is that a. Until recently, the House and the Senate were controlled by different political parties. b. Bicameralism increases gridlock. c. Members of the House can’t seem to form coalitions that result in legislative majorities. d. The president has threatened to veto most of the bills Congress has proposed. QUESTION 15 1. Here is a statistical model that assesses the impact of racial resentment, authoritarianism and fear of Hillary Clinton on feelings of warmth toward Donald Trump: Table 1.pdf Which of the variables is most likely to be equal to zero? a. Racial resentment. b. Authoritarianism. c. Fear of Hillary Clinton. d. None of them. QUESTION 16 1. Here is a statistical table that assesses the impact of racial resentment, authoritarianism and fear of Hillary Clinton on feelings of warmth for Donald Trump. Table 1.pdf The Trump Feeling Thermometer runs from 0 degrees to 100 degrees. The three variables in the table are scales that run from 0 to 1 so that an increase in one unit on a scale is the same thing as going from 0 to 100 on a 100 point scale. How should we interpret the 44.07 coefficient for racial resentment? a. Racial resentment does not affect feelings of warmth for Donald Trump because there is no likelihood that the coefficient is statistically significant. b. As feelings of warmth for Donald Trump increase from their lowest values to their highest values, racial resentment increases by 44.07%, holding authoritarianism and fear of Hillary Clinton constant. c. Going from the lowest value on the racial resentment scale to the highest increases feelings of warmth for Donald Trump by 44.07 degrees, holding authoritarianism and fear of Hillary Clinton constant. d. There is a 44.07% chance that racial resentment affects feelings of warmth for Donald Trump. QUESTION 17 1. A tax expenditure is a. the amount you pay to settle your tax bill on April 15 each year b. another way of thinking about a tax deduction c. usually beneficial for the economy d. the way most politicians describe the way they spend money for the general welfare in accordance with the Constitution. QUESTION 18 1. The Constitution provides that (this is a hard question Hint: Read the 16th Amendment carefully!) “a. Congress may decide, in its sole discretion, how much to tax” b. All taxes be set at reasonable rates c. Taxes be apportioned among the states “d. Congress may decide, in its sole discretion, what to tax” QUESTION 19 1. What’s the most likely reason that billionaires like Warren Buffett, Bill Gates and Mitt Romney can pay taxes at a much lower rate than their secretaries? a. Their tax accountants and lawyers are much smarter than everyone else. b. They mostly live off of savings and so their income has already been taxed once. c. They tend to invest in tax free securities like municipal bonds. d. They don’t earn wages. Instead, of their income comes from capital gains. QUESTION 20 1. Why might somebody prefer to receive some of their compensation in the form of health insurance instead of in cash? a. He or she objects to having an insurance company deduct money from their bank accounts and wants to avoid the chore of having to write a check to an insurance company on a monthly basis. b. The health benefits a person can get through an employer are more generous than the health benefits available for purchase in an Obamacare exchange for the same price. c. Most people do not prefer to receive benefits in lieu of cash. We now have a labor market that favors employers, and it is cheaper for employers to force employees to accept health benefits than to pay them in cash. d. Health benefits are generally excluded from income taxation, and this makes the employee’s compensation package more valuable.

QUESTION 11

  1. As a practical matter, how many votes does it take in the Senate to confirm a Supreme Court justice?
a. 51 votes
b. 60 votes
c. 67 votes
d. 50 votes

 

QUESTION 12

  1. How many votes in Congress are required to override a presidential veto?
a. a three-fifths vote in each chamber
b. a two-thirds vote in each chamber
c. a two-thirds vote in at least one chamber and a simple majority in the other
d. a simple majority vote in each chamber

QUESTION 13

  1. One reason that Congress seems to accomplish so little is that
a. To reduce the possibility of tyranny, the framers designed a system that made it difficult to pass legislation without broad consensus.
b. Too many of its members are trying to run for president at any given time.
c. Congress has become increasingly sensitive to whether the Supreme Court will hold things it passes to be unconstitutional
d. The American people don’t want Congress to do much

QUESTION 14

  1. According to Sarah Binder, the biggest reason that Congress seems to accomplish so little is that
a. Until recently, the House and the Senate were controlled by different political parties.
b. Bicameralism increases gridlock.
c. Members of the House can’t seem to form coalitions that result in legislative majorities.
d. The president has threatened to veto most of the bills Congress has proposed.

QUESTION 15

  1. Here is a statistical model that assesses the impact of racialresentment, authoritarianism and fear of Hillary Clinton on feelings of warmth toward Donald Trump: Table 1.pdf Which of the variables is most likely to be equal to zero?

 

a. Racial resentment.
b. Authoritarianism.
c. Fear of Hillary Clinton.
d. None of them.

QUESTION 16

  1. Here is a statistical table that assesses the impact of racialresentment, authoritarianism and fear of Hillary Clinton on feelings of warmth for Donald Trump. Table 1.pdf  The Trump Feeling Thermometer runs from 0 degrees to 100 degrees.  The three variables in the table are scales that run from 0 to 1 so that an increase in one unit on a scale is the same thing as going from 0 to 100 on a 100 point scale.  How should we interpret the 44.07 coefficient for racial resentment?
a. Racial resentment does not affect feelings of warmth for Donald Trump because there is no likelihood that the coefficient is statistically significant.
b. As feelings of warmth for Donald Trump increase from their lowest values to their highest values, racial resentment increases by 44.07%, holding authoritarianism and fear of Hillary Clinton constant.
c. Going from the lowest value on the racial resentment scale to the highest increases feelings of warmth for Donald Trump by 44.07 degrees, holding authoritarianism and fear of Hillary Clinton constant.
d. There is a 44.07% chance that racial resentment affects feelings of warmth for Donald Trump.

QUESTION 17

  1. A tax expenditure is
a. the amount you pay to settle your tax bill on April 15 each year
b. another way of thinking about a tax deduction
c. usually beneficial for the economy
d. the way most politicians describe the way they spend money for the general welfare in accordance with the Constitution.

QUESTION 18

  1. The Constitution provides that (this is a hard question Hint: Read the 16th Amendment carefully!)
“a. Congress may decide, in its sole discretion, how much to tax”
b. All taxes be set at reasonable rates
c. Taxes be apportioned among the states
“d. Congress may decide, in its sole discretion, what to tax”

 

QUESTION 19

  1. What’s the most likely reason that billionaires like Warren Buffett, Bill Gates and Mitt Romney can pay taxes at a much lower rate than their secretaries?
a. Their tax accountants and lawyers are much smarter than everyone else.
b. They mostly live off of savings and so their income has already been taxed once.
c. They tend to invest in tax free securities like municipal bonds.
d. They don’t earn wages.  Instead, of their income comes from capital gains.

QUESTION 20

  1. Why might somebody prefer to receive some of their compensation in the form of health insurance instead of in cash?
a. He or she objects to having an insurance company deduct money from their bank accounts and wants to avoid the chore of having to write a check to an insurance company on a monthly basis.
b. The health benefits a person can get through an employer are more generous than the health benefits available for purchase in an Obamacare exchange for the same price.
c. Most people do not prefer to receive benefits in lieu of cash. We now have a labor market that favors employers, and it is cheaper for employers to force employees to accept health benefits than to pay them in cash.
d. Health benefits are generally excluded from income taxation, and this makes the employee’s compensation package more valuable.

 

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