The 3 articles are love and work: an attachment- theoretical perspective
Dimensions of adult attachment, affect regulation and romantic relationship functioning
Last one romantic love conceptualized as an attachment process
Check the APA Publication Manual for detailed instructions/sample paper: Sample paper is on page 41. All page references refer to the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association, 6th Edition.
General layout requirements: Papers should be typed in Times New Roman, 12-point font size; double- spaced throughout; Margins should be 1 inch all around; Page numbers should appear on all pages, starting with Title page, in Arabic numbers, positioned flush right; Running head (see below) goes on every page, appears flush left (see page 41 of APA Manual).
Title Page (numbered page 1):
Should have a running head, not to exceed 50 characters including spaces and punctuation, capitalized. Your paper’s running head is a shorter version of your title. It goes one inch from the top, one inch from the left of the page
In the middle of the title page center: the title (no more than 12 words), your name, and the name of your institution. Do NOT write the date, the professor’s name, your astrological sign, etc.
Abstract (numbered page 2):
This goes on page two, by itself. Do not indent the first line. One to two sentences per section, summarizing the introduction, method, results and implications of the findings. It does not usually include any citations with few exceptions. Maybe if you are a replicating another study. Different publications set different word-limit guidelines, which range from 150 to 250 words.
The Abstract should be supplemented with Keywords (see page 41 of the Manual).
• The abstract is generally written LAST. Class Notes: sentence 1 – general, e.g. “Our study looked at the relationship between adult attachment styles and impulsivity.” – note that we are not stating our hypothesis here. Sentence 2 – describe your participants, e.g., how many, any dropouts and why, age, gender. Sentence 3 – state which (self-reported) measures were administered. Sentence 4 – how many reported themselves as secure, avoidant, and anxious-ambivalent. Sentence 5 – state your finding, e.g., “As expected, anxious-ambivalent individuals reported …” Sentence 6 – how this study contributes the field.
• Class Notes: each paragraph has its own purpose, see below
(1) §1: Theory and Definitions
a. Paragraph one begins with two sentences on theory. For example: “John Bowlby’s research on attachment among infants and caregivers demonstrated that early experiences of consistency of care create expectations …”
b. Your next sentence (sentence 3) is transitional: here you connect the important theory figure, introduced in sentences 1 and 2, with relevant empirical research. For example, you may say something like this: “Hazan and Shaver (1987) extended Bowlby’s research on infant attachment to adult romantic relationships.” Your next three sentences (sentences 4, 5, and 6) describe adult attachment styles in terms of specific behaviors; one sentence per style (i.e., secure, anxious-ambivalent, etc.).
(2) §2: Rational (what’s called the Core Paragraph in this class)
a. This is where we present five (5) pieces of evidence that lay an empirical basis for our hypothesis (which will be presented in a separate paragraph, Paragraph Three, see below). Each piece of evidence has to be distinct and has to have the same focus as our hypothesis (i.e. addressing how two types of attachment differ on impulsivity – anxious-ambivalents and secures differ in their behavioral manifestation of impulsivity).
b. For each piece of evidence, state the author(s) and the year in the same sentence: for example, “Smith and Green (1998) found that anxious-ambiguous individuals had more speeding tickets than secure attached persons.”
§3: Hypothesis – This is where we state our hypothesis, in one sentence; for example: “This study expects to find that anxious-ambivalent individuals will report more impulsivity than secure attached individuals.”
Method: It can be on the same page as the introduction, unless it is at the bottom of the page. Remember that it is written out as “Method” (no “s” at the end) and centered. This section then is divided into: Participants, Materials and Procedure. For each of these, write out the word on a separate line in bold (see page 43 of APA Manual). In the Participants section, discuss any characteristics of the subjects that are related to your experiment, such as gender, age, their general health (when studying certain medications), etc. If you are studying the effects of alcohol on mood, it is not important to discuss how many hours of television they watch per day. Your materials section ONLY involves the actual materials you used for the experiment. This can sometimes be one sentence or at other times a few pages. It can be a paper and pen survey, a computer, a standardized intelligence test, etc. It is not a description of any other aspect of the study.
Participants: state how many participants were recruited (e.g., “N=216”) and their age (e.g., “median age = 27”), gender breakdown; also, state how they were recruited (e.g., “participants were volunteers from a large NE university”); indicate if any of them were rejected or discarded and why (in our case, 22 failed to fill out the questionnaire appropriately) and how many were left in our study, 194. 103 woman and 91 men.
Materials: identify what instruments (surveys or questionnaires) were used (e.g., “Hazan and Shaver’s (1990) Adult Attachment Questionnaire and Jackson’s (1989) Basic Personality Inventory”).
This is where you discuss HOW you conducted the experiment. Be specific when describing all the relevant actions that were taken to perform the experiment. Remember that you must write this clearly enough that anyone could read it and know exactly how to run your study.
You will also need to state that you went to a densely populated area on campus and distributed copies of the questionnaire.
Results: Will follow right after your method section. It includes all your statistical tests, descriptive statistics. Mention the number of subjects who reported certain attachment styles; 47 anxious
Ambivalents, 41 Avoidants, and 106 secures. A two tail t test was conducted and anxious ambivalents reported more impulsivity than secures: df=72 critical t 9.1 and p.<05. Please put these descriptive stats into apa style.
Discussion section follows right after the results section. This is where you interpret and talk about your results. Start with the restatement of your hypothesis. What did you find? What did others find? Why might their results have been different than yours? What problems did you run into, how did you handle them, and how may these have affected your findings? What do your results mean? What alternate explanations can you come up with for why you did or did not get the results you expected? What are the implications of your findings (how do they contribute to the field, and how can they direct future studies?)
§1: Sentence 1 should be your summary of findings, e.g., “As expected, anxious-ambivalent individuals reported more impulsivity than securely attached individuals.” Next, sentence 2 is where you state whether your findings are in accord with other relevant studies, e.g., “Our findings were identical with the so and so (year) study. Ensuing discussion should address how your findings clarify certain behaviors and constructs under investigation and how your study contributes to theory. For the purposes of this assignment, starting with sentence 3, address the following three (3) points: (1) consumption, (2) work, and (3) intimacy. Each point should be one-two sentence long.
Point 1: consumption – examples include shopping, drinking, drugs, and overeating. Select one behavior and make sure it’s stated in specific terms and then explain how our knowing that one group is impulsive clarifies this particular behavior.
Point 2: work – refer to two work-related findings and demonstrate how knowing that one group is more impulsive can clarify their work-related behavior.
Point 3: intimacy – be specific in how you define behaviors, e.g., “falling in love quickly and often”; again, how knowing that one group is more impulsive than another clarifies their behavior in intimate relationships?
§2 discusses how your study contributes to theory:
• Relating your findings to theory: this is where we address the primary caregiver issue. That is, supposedly, private caregivers for anxious-ambivalent and secure individuals do differ in how they interact with their children. We expect that this difference will affect the child’s subsequent behavior as he/she matures. For example, if a child has an erratic primary caregiver, the infant might have difficulty developing a sense of consequences, e.g., one time, when he/she cries because of hunger, her caregiver comes and soothes her; the next time, however, the caregiver ignores the crying child. Over time, the child may fail to develop a strong sense of consequences (i.e., the ability to foresee what is likely to happen if she behaves in a certain way).
Finally, in §2 discuss the study’s limitations, e.g., “There are certain limitations to the present study” as well as directions for future research:
• Limitations: discuss two limitations, social desirability and losing some of our participants:
Social desirability use about two sentences, explain that you don’t know if the difference in impulsivity is about attachment patterns and not due to one’s willingness to omit negative personal information (i.e., social desirability). One group is more willing to acknowledge what is usually perceived as negative personal information.
We lost 10% of our participants because they failed to complete the questionnaire appropriately: since they were dropped from the study, we cannot really tell whether our findings would have been different if they had participated in our study.
• Future Directions: what other studies can we conduct to address our limitations or to apply some of our findings to? One sentence should be enough.
They go on a separate page. Alphabetize, and don’t forget anyone. Cross check your entire paper and reference list. Indent all but the first line of each one. Last name, initials. (No full first names.). Separate each name with a comma, except for the last one, then you use an ampersand (“&”, above the number 7 on your keyboard). Then write the year, in parentheses and then the title of the publication. ONLY the first letter and any letter following a colon (:) are capitalized, all others are lower-case (unless it is a proper name, of course). Then the title of the source, if it is a journal, including volume, number, and pages. Italicize the title and volume, not the number and pages. If it is a book, write the location where it was published (i.e., city and state) then colon (:) then the publishing company (see EXAMPLE (Book) below). You must alphabetize by FIRST author only, not among the all the authors within the source.
EXAMPLE: (Journal Article)
Mekarski, J.E., Cutmore, T.R.H., & Suboski, W. (1996). Gender differences during processing of the Stroop task: An overview. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 83 (1), 563- 568.
Bentley, P. (1975). Jaws: The revenge. New York; NY: Doubleday & Co.
Some general issues:
Use past tense (the experiment was conducted, stimuli were presented, the participants were bored, etc.)
Avoid using words “I”, “us”, “we”, “our”…. That is, instead of “we thought…”, use “the researchers thought…”.
Do not make conclusive statements, such as “Obviously, the results mean there is a gender difference…” or “It is clear that there is no relationship between alcohol and mood”. Remember, just because you didn’t find something doesn’t mean it isn’t possible! Use instead, “the results indicated that alcohol does not necessarily affect mood”, or “the present findings show that there may be a significant gender difference…” Absolutely do not ever write that your results “prove” something. You cannot prove your hypothesis, only obtain results that either support or fail to support it.
Don’t forget your graphs, tables, figure captions (on a separate page!), figures, etc. (Unless of course, you have none.)
Cite any idea that isn’t yours, or anything you directly quoted from another source, and always write the author and the year as follows:
Barry (1972) found that…
When using a direct quote use quotation marks and include the page number within the source. Avoid secondary citations unless absolutely crucial.
EXAMPLE: Barry (2001, as cited in Johnson, 2003).
You are responsible for finding any source and reading it thoroughly before you cite it. Under no circumstances should tertiary citations be used.
When referring to articles within the body of your paper you have two options:
(1) “Barry and Julian (2002) found that the color red provoked higher levels of anxiety than the color green among their participants.” OR
(2) “Previous research suggests that the color red provokes higher levels of anxiety than the color green (Barry & Julian, 2002).”
Both of these are OK, just note that if you do it the first way, with the authors’ names outside the parentheses, you use the word “and” to separate them. If you cite them within the parentheses, you use an ampersand to separate their names.
Write OBJECTIVELY, not subjectively. Leave your opinions out of your paper. And watch out for personal interjections in your discussion. Do not speculate, just state the facts.